An Evaluation on The Applicability of Block Chain Technology in Disaster and Risk Management

Abstract views: 38 / PDF downloads: 27




Disaster and Risk Management, Blockchain Technology, Smart Contracts, Identity Management, Social Assistance, and Digitalization in Public Administration


It is stated that in the current social formation, large-scale disasters are increasing rapidly, and their effects are spreading throughout the global system. In this context, societies need to be able to identify existing risks and take innovative and coercive measures to mitigate threats on a global scale (Comfort and Rhodes, 2022: 1). The transboundary nature of the crisis requires urgent corrective action with deep uncertainty, and in this process, the new level of information technology has the capacity to respond to the search for innovative solutions in the management of disaster and risk situations. Blockchain technology is expressed as a new level reached by the digitalization process and draws attention with its applicability in the disaster and risk management process through its technical features. Blockchain, a distributed ledger technology, consists of a series of protocols based on cryptography, simultaneously accessible, decentralized, shared, data recording, storing, verifying, and updating. In this context, this new generation technology has a significant potential in solving administrative problems that arise before, during and after disasters. Areas such as identity management, smart contracts and supply chain and social aid networks are expressed as prominent areas in terms of the applicability of blockchain technology in disaster management.


ACT-IAC, 2017, “Enabling Blockchain Innovation in the U.S. Federal Government:A Blockchain Primer”, Online, Erişim Adresi: IAC%20ENABLING%20BLOCKCHAIN%20INNOV A TION_3.pdf

Alexis, B ve Frapper L.L (2020). 10 Things A General Counsel Needs to Know About Blockchain, erişim tarihi 03.04.2024,

Alharby, M., ve Van Moorsel, A. (2017). Blockchain-based smart contracts: A systematic mapping study. arXiv preprint arXiv:1710.06372.

Ansell, C., Boin, A., and Keller, A. (2010). Managing transboundary crises: Identifying the building blocks of an effective response system. Journal of contingencies and crisis management, 18(4), 195-207.

Auf de Heide, E. (1989). Disaster Response: Principles and Preparation and Coordination. The CV Mosby Company, St Louis, MO.

Atzori, M. (2015). Blockchain technology and decentralized governance: Is the state still necessary? Available at SSRN 2709713.

Avci, S. B., ve Aysal, S., (2022). “Kamu Yönetimi Bağlamında E-Katılım ve Blok Zincir Perspektifinden Yönetişim Olgusunun Değerlendirilmesi”. Uluslararası Kamu Yönetimi Forumu Tam Metinler Kitabı, 65.

Aydar, M., ve Çetin, S. (2020). Blokzincir teknolojisinin sağlık bilgi sistemlerinde kullanımı. Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi, (19), 533-538.

Baharmand, H ve Comes, T. (2019). Leveraging partnerships with logistics service providers in humanitarian supply chains by blockchain-based smart contracts, IFAC- PapersOnLine 52 (13), 12–17,

Bergstra, J. A., & Burgess, M. (2018). Blockchain Technology and its Applications A Promise Theory view-V0. 11.

Berryhill, J., Bourgery, T., ve Hanson, A. (2018). Blockchains unchained: Blockchain technology and its use in t the public sector. OECD Working Papers on Public Governance No.28.

Boin, A. and Kuipers, S. (2015), Exploring The Eu’s Role As Transboundary Crisis Manager: The Facilitation Of Sense-Making During The Ash Crisis, Bossong, R., & Hegemann, H. (Eds.), ). European Civil Security Governance: Diversity and Cooperation in Crisis and Disaster Management. Springer.

Brinkmann, M. (2021). The realities of blockchain-based new public governance: an explorative analysis of blockchain implementations in Europe. Digital Government: Research and Practice, 2(3), 1-14.

Chen, G., Xu, B., Lu, M., ve Chen, N. S. (2018). Exploring blockchain technology and its potential applications for education. Smart Learning Environments, 5(1), 1- 10.

Christie, A. (2020). Can distributed ledger technologies promote trust for charities? A literature review. Frontiers in Blockchain, 3, 31.

Comfort, L.K., & Rhodes, M.L. (Eds.). (2022). Global Risk Management: The Role of Collective Cognition in Response to COVID-19 (1st ed.). Routledge.

Coppola, D. (2015). Introduction to International Disaster Management, Third Edition, USA: Elsevier.

Comfort, L.K., & Rhodes, M.L. (Eds.). (2022). Global Risk Management: The Role of Collective Cognition in Response to COVID-19 (1st ed.). Routledge.

Çubukcuoglu, S. (2022). Coding The Governance: Different Models of Blockchain- Based Governance Systems [M.S. - Master of Science]. Middle East Technical University.

Demir, M., Turetken, O., & Ferworn, A. (2020, August). Blockchain-based transparent disaster relief delivery assurance. In 2020 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon) (pp. 1-8). IEEE.

Datareportal (2023), Dıgıtal 2023: Global Overvıew Report,

Drabek, T. E. (1986). Human system responses to disaster: An inventory of sociological findings. New York: Springer Verlag.

Drabek, T.E., & McEntire, D.A. (2002). Emergent Phenomena and Multiorganizational Coordination in Disasters: Lessons from the Research Literature. International Journal of Mass Emergencies & Disasters, 20, 197- 224.

DRIVER+ Driving European Innovation for crisis management – Trials 1 and 2, PCSE, January 2019.

Durukal, O., ve Öztürk, N. K. (2019). Kamusal hizmet sunumunda blokchain teknolojisi. EKEV Akademi Dergisi, (77), 449-456.

Euroblockchain, January 2024 Trends Report. Erişim tarihi, 10. Mart 2024,

Farooq, M. S., Khan, M., ve Abid, A. (2020). A framework to make charity collection transparent and auditable using blockchain technology, Computers & Electrical Engineering, 83.

Fisher, D. (2007). Law and legal issues in international disaster response: A desk study. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

Fothergill, A. Enrique M. and JoAnne D. D., (1999). Race, Ethnicity and Disasters in the United States: A Review of the Literature. Disasters 23 (2), 156–173.

Freeman, J.D, Blacker, B. Hatt, G. Tan, S. Ratcliff, J. Woolf, T.B. Tower, C.. Barnett, D.J (2019). Use of big data and information and communications technology in disasters: an integrative review, Disaster Med. Public Health Prep. 13 (2), 353–367,

Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN), (16.03.2023), Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) Regional Partners Meeting, accessed network-(goarn)-regional-partners-meeting

Gipp, B., Meuschke, N. and Gernandt, A. (2015). Decentralized trusted timestamping using the crypto currency bitcoin. In Proceedings of the iConference 2015 (to appear), Newport Beach, CA, USA, Mar. 24 - 27,

Gunn, W. (2013). Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and Humanitarian Relief, New York, Springer Pub.

Haase, T (2010). International Disaster Resilience Preparing For Transnational Disaster, Designing resilience: Preparing for extreme events, Comfort, L. K., Boin, A., & Demchak, C. C. (Eds.). University of Pittsburgh Pre. Ss: 220-243.

Hackius, N., ve Petersen, M. (2017). Blockchain in logistics and supply chain: Trick or treat, In Proceedings (8-13). Hamburg International Conference of Logistics (HICL), 112-13 October, Hamburg. doi:10.15480/882.1444

Haddow, G., Bullock, J.A., & Cappola, D.M (2017). Introduction to Emergency Management, Sixth Edition, USA: Elsevier.

Hawlıtschek, F. Notheisen, B. ve Teubner, T. (2018). The limits of trust-free systems: A literature review on blockchain technology and trust in the sharing economy, Electronic Commerce Research Application, 29, 50–63.

Hempel, J., (2018,03,14). Blockchain’s Brand New World is Being Built by Refugees, Erişim adresi: (Erişim Tarihi:26.10.2023).

Hermitte, C.L ve Nair, N (2020) Ablockchain enabledframeworkforsharinglogisticsresourcesinemergencyoperations,Disasters45(3)527–554,

Hileman, G., ve Rauchs, M. (2017). Global blockchain benchmarking study. Available at SSRN 3040224.

International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, (IDNDR), (1994) Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World- Guidelines for Natural Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation. World Conference on Disaster Reduction, Japan.

Jacobovitz, O. (2016). Blockchain for identity management. (Technical Report #16- 02). The Lynne and William Frankel Center for Computer Science Department of Computer Science. Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva, 1 (9).

Jun, M. Blockchaingovernment:anextformofinfrastructureforthetwenty-firstcentury,J.OpenInnov.Technol.Mark.Complex4(2018)7,

Klein, M.I (2021). Cross-Border Collaboration in Disaster Management, KIT Scientific Publishing

Krakauer, D. 2020. Complex Time, Santa Fe: Santa Fe Institute Seminar Series. July 31.

Kshetri, N. (2018). Blockchain’s roles in meeting key supply chain management objectives. International Journal of information management, 39, 80-89. doi: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2017.12.005

Liu, Y., He, D., Obaidat, M. S., Kumar, N., Khan, M. K., ve Choo, K. K. R. (2020). Blockchain-based identity management systems: A review. Journal of network and computer applications, 166, 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jnca.2020.102731.

McEntire, D.A (1998). Towards a Theory of Coordination: Umbrella Organization nad disaster Relief in the 1997-1998 Peruvian El Nino Disaster. Quik Respond Report No:105, University of Colorado.

Mohan, 2017: IBM Disaster Management Solution – Part 1and 2: Cloud, IoT, Blockchain

Nath, I. (2016). Data Exchange Platform to Fight Insurance Fraud on Blockchain, 2016 IEEE 16th International Conference on Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW), 821–825. doi: 10.1109/ICDMW.2016.0121

Ostrom, E. 2005. Understanding Institutional Diversity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Ølnes, S., Ubacht, J., ve Janssen, M. (2017). Blockchain in government: benefits and implications of distributed ledger technology for information sharing. Government information quarterly, 34(3), 355-364.

Özaltın, O. ve Ersoy, M. (2020). Kamu yönetiminde blokzincir kullanımı: D5 örneği. Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli Üniversitesi SBE Dergisi, 10(2), 746-763. doi: 10.30783/nevsosbilen.748379

Pinkowski, J. (2008). Disaster Management Handbook, New York, USA, CRC Press.

Poonia, V., Goyal, M. K., Gupta, B. B., Gupta, A. K., Jha, S., & Das, J. (2021). Drought occurrence in different river basins of India and blockchain technology based framework for disaster management. Journal of Cleaner Production, 312, 127737.

Rangone, A., ve Busolli, L. (2021). Managing charity 4.0 with Blockchain: a case study at the time of Covid-19. International review on public and nonprofit marketing, 18(4), 491-521. doi: 10.1007/s12208-021-00281-8

Reddick, C (2011). Information technology and emergency management: preparedness and planning in US states, Disasters 35 (1), 45–61,

Schmitt, C. (2023, March 23), UNHCR wins award for innovative use of blockchain solutions to provide cash to forcibly displaced in Ukraine, Erişim adresi: use-blockchain-solutions-provide-cash-forcibly.

Silva, E. C. C. ve Marques, R. M. (2021). Blockchain in the public sector: a systematic literature review, Atoz: novas práticas em informação e conhecimento, 10(3), 1-11.

Şat, N. (2019). Blokzincir (blockchain)’in kamu idaresine olası etkileri üzerine, Amme İdaresi Dergisi, 52 (4), 117-147.

Tan, E., Mahula, S., ve Crompvoets, J. (2022). Blockchain governance ın the public sector: a conceptual framework for public management, Government Information Quarterly, 39(1), 1-11.

Tanrıverdi, M., Uysal, M. ve Üstündağ, M. T. (2019). Blokzinciri teknolojisi nedir? ne değildir?: alanyazın incelemesi , Bilişim Teknolojileri Dergisi , 12 (3) , 203-217 . DOI: 10.17671/gazibtd.547122

Takaoğlu, M., Çağdaş, Ö., ve Parlak, E. (2019). Blokzinciri teknolojisi ve türkiye’deki muhtemel uygulanma alanları, Uluslararası Doğu Anadolu Fen Mühendislik ve Tasarım Dergisi, 1(2), 260-295.

Tüfekci, A. ve Karahan, Ç., (2019), Blokzincir teknolojisi ve kamu kurumlarınca verilen hizmetlerde blokzincirin kullanım durumu, Verimlilik Dergisi, T. C. Sanayi ve Teknoloji Bakanlığı Yayını, (4), s. 157-193.

The World Bank (2023), Disaster Risk Management. Erişim tarihi 14 Eylül 2023.

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (Sendai Framework) (2015- 2030), erişim tarihi: 23.10.2016

Toprak Karaman, Zerrin (2016). Afet Yönetimine Giriş ve Türkiye’de Örgütlenme, Zerrin Toprak Karaman ve Asuman Altay (ed). Bütünleşik Afet Yönetimi, İlkem Yayınları: İzmir, ss:1-36.

Tüfekci, A. ve Karahan, Ç., (2019), Blokzincir teknolojisi ve kamu kurumlarınca verilen hizmetlerde blokzincirin kullanım durumu, Verimlilik Dergisi, T. C. Sanayi ve Teknoloji Bakanlığı Yayını, (4), s. 157-193.

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), We coordinate, erişim tarihi 14.12.2023,

United Nations Ukraine, (2022, December 15). UNHCR launches pilot Cash-Based Intervention Using Blockchain Technology for Humanitarian Payments to People Displaced and Impacted by the War in Ukrainei https:// UNHCR launches pilot Cash-Based Intervention Using Blockchain Technology for Humanitarian Payments to People Displaced and Impacted by the War in

UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDDR), (2012), UNISDR annual report 2012, erişim tarihi 14.12.2023,

Panesir, M. S. (2018). Blockchain applications for disaster management and national security (Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo).

Wang, Y., & Chen, H. (2022). Blockchain: A potential technology to improve the performance of collaborative emergency management with multi-agent participation. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 72, 102867.

Wang, S., Ouyang, L., Yuan, Y., Ni, X., Han, X., ve Wang, F. Y. (2019). Blockchain- enabled smart contracts: architecture, applications, and future trends. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, 49(11), 2266-2277. doi: 10.1109/TSMC.2019.2895123

Wise, C. R., (2006) Organizing for Homeland Security after Katrina: Is adaptive Management What’s missing? Public administration review, Vol. 66, No.3, pp. 302- 318

Wüst, K., ve Gervais, A. (2018). Do you need a blockchain?. In 2018 crypto valley conference on blockchain technology (CVCBT) IEEE, (pp. 45-54), doi: 10.1109/CVCBT.2018.00011

Xu, X., Weber, I., ve Staples, M. (2019). Architecture for blockchain applications Cham: Springer, 1-307.

Yaşa, A. A. (2022). Kamu sektöründe blok zincir teknolojisi kullanımı: Türkiye'de mevcut durum analizi. Yaşar Üniversitesi E-Dergisi, 17(66), 615-633.

Zhao, J. L, Fan, S. ve Yan, J. (2016). Overview of business innovations and research opportunities in blockchain and introduction to the special issue, Financial Innovation, 2(1), 1-28,



How to Cite

Gür Türkdoğan, T. (2024). An Evaluation on The Applicability of Block Chain Technology in Disaster and Risk Management. Atlas Journal, 10(53), 23–40.