Linguistic Intersectionality (Interlinguistics) in the 21st Century: Interpreting the Intricacies and Implications of Language Contact from Bilingualism to Creole

Abstract views: 199 / PDF downloads: 53




Sociolinguistics, Language Contact, Bilingualism, Interlanguage, Language Attrition


Sociolinguistics stands as a subfield within linguistics that examines the intricate relationship between language and society. Its primary objective is to investigate the influence of internal or external societal factors on language use, considering elements such as the context of communication, characteristics of participants, and prevailing cultural norms. Communication may transpire between individuals who speak the same language or those using different languages. In cases where speakers of distinct languages find the necessity to communicate, they may engage directly as bilingual speakers, sharing language proficiency. Alternatively, they may develop a shared mode of communication. This occurrence, commonly referred to as "language contact" in academic discourse, denotes the phenomenon whereby one language exerts an impact on another. Language contact involves the transfer of linguistic features when individuals with diverse language backgrounds interact. Such interactions can yield varied outcomes, including the dominance of one language over the other, the convergence of languages, or the emergence of entirely new linguistic forms. The current study delves into numerous ramifications arising from language contact, addressing concepts like bilingualism, code-switching, borrowing, language attrition, language transfer, interference, mixed language, pidgin, creole, and interlanguage. In light of these considerations, it is striven in this review article to contribute valuable insights to the extant literature on this intricate subject.


Akdemir, A. S. (2016). Willingness to Communicate WTC in L2 An Affective Construct of Language Learning Process. Atatürk University Journal of Social Science Institute, 20(3), 839–854.

Akdemir, A. S., & İlhan, B. (2019). EFL Instructors Majors and Their Speaking Activity Choices for Informal Oral Assessment. Anadolu Journal of Educational Sciences International - Anadolu Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9(1), 1–26.

Al Heetia, N. H., & Al Abdely, A. A. (2016). Types and functions of code-switching in the English language used by Iraqi doctors in formal setting. International Journal of Advanced Research and Review, 1(8), 10-18.

Asanova, J. (2006). The impact of the Asian Development Bank on educational policy formation in Kazakhstan. Central Eurasian Studies Review, 5(1), 7-10.

Atasoy, İ. O. & Ercan, G. S. (2022). Language and society: Language contact and related concepts. The Jour- nal of Kesit Academy, 8 (31), 565-586.

Ataş, Ş. (2017). Mardin'de çok dillilik ve ana dili Arapça olan çok dillilerde kod değiştirimleri [Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi]. Çağ Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.

Baker, C. (2001). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (3. Baskı). Multilingual Matters.

Bican, G. (2017). İki dilliliğin tanımlanması: Kuramsal tartışmalar ve güncel dilbilimsel yaklaşımlar. Ana Dili Eğitimi Dergisi, 5(2), 353-366.

Blom, J. P., & Gumperz, J. J. (1972). Social meaning in linguistic structure: Code-switching in Northern Norway. J. J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.) Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication (ss. 407-434). Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Bloomfield, L. (1933). Language. Holt.

Borg, J., & Lauri, M. A. (2008). DTV in Malta. van den Broeck, W., & Pierson, J. (Eds.), Digital television in Europe, (ss. 143-152). VUB Press.

Borges, R. D. (2014). The life of language: Dynamics of language contact in Suriname [Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi]. Utrecht University.

Brice, A., & Anderson, R. (1999). Code mixing in a young bilingual child. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 21(1), 17–22.

Demiray, F. (2015). İkidillilik bağlamında düzenek değiştirme olgusu temel dil çerçeve modeline göre incelenmesi. Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 6(2), 26-39.

Diaz, R. M. (1983). Thought and two languages: The impact of bilingualism on cognitive development. Review of Research in Education, 10, 23-54.

Duisembekova, Z., & Özmen, K. S. (2020). Analyzing language learning beliefs of English student teachers: A cross-cultural study across Turkic republics. Bilig, (94), 51-73.

Duran, L. (1994). Toward a better understanding of code switching and interlanguage in bilinguality: Implications for bilingual instruction. The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, 14, 69-88.

Duranti, A. (Ed.). (2004). A companion to linguistic anthropology. Blackwell.

Dweik, B. S., & Al-Obaidi, T. A. (2014). Language contact, use and attitudes among the Chal-do Assyrians of Baghdad, Iraq: A sociolinguistic study. Journal of Advances in Linguis- tics, 3(3), 219-232.

Eldin, A. A. T. S. (2014). Socio-linguistic study of code switching of the Arabic language speakers on social networking. International Journal of English Linguistics, 4(6), 78-86.

Ennin, T., & Afful, I. (2015). Stylistic significance of code switching and code mixing in three African novels. The English Literature Journal, 2(4), 426-434.

Ercan, G. S. (2021). Dil gelişimi. Siyez, D. M (Ed.)Çocuk ve Ergen Gelişimi: Çok Boyutlu Bir Bakış, (ss. 306-335). Pegem Akademi.

Fishman, J. (1989). Language and ethnicity in minority sociolinguistic perspective. Multilingual Matters.

Giatno, G.,Wisman, H., & Gafari, M. O. F. (2019). Morphological interference in the form of Malay language affixation Panai Dialect in the use of writing language (Narrative Text) in 5th grade of primary school No. 112202 in Middle Panai District. Budapest Internati- onal Research and Critics in Linguistics and Education (BirLE) Journal, 2(2), 100-114.

Gilquin, G. (2015). At the interface of contact linguistics and second language acquisition research: New Englishes and learner Englishes compared. English World-Wide, 36(1), 91- 124., 2007;

Glovacki-Bernardi, Z., & Jernej, M. (2004). On German-Croatian and Italian-Croatian language contact. Collegium Antropologicum, 28(1), 201-205.

Gökdağ, B. A. (2011). Doğu Karadeniz’de konuşulan diller ve Türkçe ile etkileşimleri. Karadeniz Araştırmaları, 31(31), 111-134.Demiray, 2015

Grosjean, F. (1982). Life with two languages. Cambridge University Press.

Grosjean, F. (1985). The bilingual as a competent but specific speaker‐hearer. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 6(6), 467-477.

Hamers, J. F., & Blanc, M. H. A. (2000). Bilinguality and bilingualism. Cambridge University Press.

Hasselblatt, C., de Jonge, B., & Norde, M. (2010). Langauge contact: New perspectives. John Benjamins.

Holmes, J. (2013). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, Fourth Edition. Routledge.

Huehnergard, J. (Ed.). (2013). The Semitic Languages. Routledge.

Hymes D. (1971). On communicative competence. University of Pennsylvania Press.

İmer, K., Kocaman, A. ve Özsoy, A. S. (2013). Dilbilim sözlüğü. Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınevi.

Jdetawy, L. F. A. (2011). Arabic-English code-switching among Arab students at UUM, Malaysia. Language in India, 11(5), 102-117.

Kheder, R. M. (2019). The pros and cons of bringing children up bilingually. Journal of University of Human Development, 5(3), 73-78

Kıran, Z. ve Kıran (Eziler), A. (2012). Dilbilime giriş. Seçkin Yayıncılık.

Kostoulas-Makrakis, N., Karantzola, E., & Athanassiadis, E. (2006). Attitudes towards bilingualism: The case of two Greek islands. Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies. 11(2), 17-34.

Köpke, B., & Genevska-Hanke, D. (2018). First language attrition and dominance: Same same or different?. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1963.

Liu, H., & Ren, Q. (2017). The language contact status of Kanbun Kundoku in East Asian languages. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 142, 411- 413.

Mabule, D. R. (2015). What is this? Is it code switching, code mixing or language alterna- ting?. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 5(1), 339-349.

Mahomoudi, F. ve Mahmoudi, A. (2020). İki dillilik: Dil ve biliş. Türk Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 1(1), 14-19.

Marini, A., & Fabbro, F. (2007). Psycholinguistic models of speech production in bilingualism and multilingualism. A. Ardila ve E. Ramos (Eds.), Speech and language disorders in bilinguals (ss. 47-67). Nova Science.

Marini, A., Urgesi, C., & Fabbro, F. (2012). Clinical neurolinguistics of bilingualism. M. Faust (Ed..), The handbook of the neuropsychology of language, (ss. 738-759). Blackwell.

Meakins, F. & Stewart, J. (2022). Mixed languages. Mufwene, S., & Escobar, A. M. (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of language contact. Cambridge University Press. (Yayın aşamasında).

Meakins, F. (2013). Mixed languages. Bakker, P., & Matras, Y. (Eds.), Contact languages: A comprehensive guide, (ss. 159-228. De Gruyter Mouton.

Messiliti, H. (2017). The study of code-switching/mixing in Algerian universities [Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi]. The University of Abdelhamid Ibn Badis Mostaganem.

Meyerhoff, M. (2006). Introducing sociolinguistics. Routledge.

Mohammadi, S. M. (2014). Code switching as a robust catalyst; a useful way to become a more strategic language user. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 2(5-1), 47- 55.

Mrva, J. (2018). Passive bilingualism within the Iberian Peninsula. Revista Colombiana de Educación, (75), 215-242.

Muhvić-Dimanovski, V. (2005). Languages in contact. A. Sujoldžić (Ed.), Linguistic anthropology (ss. 52-62). EOLSS Publishers.

Muysken, P. (2011). Code-switching R. Mesthrie (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of sociolinguistics, (ss. 301-314). Cambridge University Press.

Muysken, P. C. & Smith, N. (1994). Introduction. J. Arends, P. Muysken, & N. Smith (Eds.), Pidgins and creoles: An introduction, (ss. 3-14). Benjamins.

Myers-Scotton, C. (1998). Code-switching. F. Coulmas (Ed.), The handbook of sociolinguistics, (ss. 149-160). Blackwell.

Nazlı, E. H. (2016). Toplumdilbilime genel bir bakış. SBArD Sosyal Bilimler Araştırma Dergisi, (28), 37-66.

Nerghes, A. (2011). The impact of code-switching on persuasion: An elaboration likelihood perspective [Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi]. Wageningen University & Research.

Nguyen, T. (2014). Code switching: A sociolinguistic perspective. Anchor Academy Publishing.

Otsuka, Y. (2005). History of Polynesian languages. Linguistics, 345, 267-296.

Ovu, B., F. & Anyanwu, Q. E. (2019). Bilingualism problems in Nigeria: Implications for ESL pedagogy. Journal of Languages, Linguistics and Literary Studies (JOLLS), 8, 13-21.

Özüorçun, F. (2014). Language varieties: Pidgins and creoles. LAÜ Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 5(2), 114-123.

Polome, E. (1971). Pidginization and creolization of languages. Cambridge University Press.

Poplack, S. (1980). Sometimes I'll start a sentence in English y Termıno en Español: toward a typology of code-switching. Linguistics, 18(7-8), 581-618.

Poplack, S., & Meechan, M. (Eds.). (1998). Instant loans, easy conditions: The productivity of bilingual borrowing; Special issue of the international journal of bilingualism. Kingston Press.

Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 10(3), 209-231.

Selinker, L., & Mascia, R. (2001). Interlanguage speech recognition by computer: Implications for SLA and computational machines. Apples-Journal of Applied Language Studies, 1(1), 19-55.

Siemund, P. (2008). Language contact: Constraints and common paths of contact induced language change. P. Siemund, & N. Kintana (Eds.), Language Contact and Contact Lan- guages, (ss. 3-11). Benjamins.

Smart-Carvalho, C. (2018). The enactment of Bill 5, The Francophone community enhancement and support act: A proud moment for Manitoba. Manitoba Law Journal, 41(1), 479- 510.

Süverdem, F. B. ve Ertek, B. (2020). İki dillilik ve iki kültürlülük: göç, kimlik ve aidiyet. The Journal of International Lingual Social and Educational Sciences, 6(2), 183-207.

Swain, S., Adams, J. N., & Janse, M. (2002). Bilingualism in ancient society: Language contact Walczyński, M. (2012). The study of pidgins and creoles and society- and culture-related fields of linguistics. İçinde Bryll, A., Sikora, I. & Walczyński, M. (Eds.) Philological inquiries: Festschrift for Professor Julian Maliszewski honouring his 40 years of scholarly activity and his 60th birthday, ss. 194-213. Nysa: Oficyna Wydawnicza PWSZ w Nysie.

Takkac, M., & Akdemir, A. S. (2015). Defining listeners in second language (L2) listening: investigating the Characteristics of language learners as listeners. International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, 6(2), 116-141.

Thomason, S. G. (2001). Language contact. Edinburgh University Press.

Todorova, B. B. (2019). Bulgarian-English code-switching in Internet forum communication: The BG-mamma case. Open Linguistics, 5(1), 121-135. 2019-0008

Van Gijn, R. (2009). The phonology of mixed languages. Journal of Pidgin and Creole languages, 24(1), 93-119.

Weinreich, H. (1974). The structure of moral reason. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 3(2), 135 - 143.

Wu, X. J. (2017). Error analysis of interlanguage in English writing. DEStech Transactions on Social Science, Education and Human Science, (mess). 10.12783/dtssehs/mess2017/12107

Yaman, İ. ve Ekmekçi, E. (2018). İngiliz dili eğitimi alanında yaygın bir şekilde kullanılan bazı terimlerin Türkçe'ye aktarımı sorunu. Diyalektolog Sosyal Araştırmalar Hakemli Dergisi, (18), 143-167. .

Yılmaz, M. Y. (2014). İki dillilik olgusu ve Almanya’daki Türklerin iki dilli eğitim sorunu. Turkish Studies - International Periodical for the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 9(3), 1641-1651. 10.7827/TurkishStudies.6216

Zhang, H., & Wang, N. (2016). Sociolinguistics and English teaching in China. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 6(4), 830-834.

Zimmermann, J. L. (2011). The increasing Anglicisation of Tok Pisin: An analysis of the Wantok Corpus [Yayımlanmamış Doktora tezi]. The University of Regensburg.


2023-12-25 — Updated on 2023-12-26


How to Cite

Özyurt, S. (2023). Linguistic Intersectionality (Interlinguistics) in the 21st Century: Interpreting the Intricacies and Implications of Language Contact from Bilingualism to Creole. Atlas Journal, 9(52), 104–116. (Original work published December 25, 2023)