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Abstract


OVERWIEV OF JEWISH EXILES FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE MIDDLE AGES

The first exodus of the Jewish community, which had been subjected to migration and exile since their first period on the historical stage, was described in the Bible saons. It begins when Abraham emigrated from Mesopotamia, where he lived in the B.C. XXI-XX centuries, to the Land of Canaan (Palestine) by the revelation of God. However, after a period of time, jews who were forced to emigrate to Egypt due to the drought that admonished in the land of Canaan were enslaved during the pharaohs' reign after a 400-year period of prosperity, and saved them from captivity.Moses is over. B.C. XIII. century, Hz. The Jews, who came out of Egypt under the leadership of Moses, had covened with God on Mount Sinai during this period and, according to this covenant, the lands of Kenan were bestowed on them as a tribe chosen and blessed by God in exchange for living in accordance with the Torah rules. However, this first generation, who disobeyed this deed and rebelled against Moses, were condemned to the desert for forty years as punishment for defying God and banned from the promised land (arz-i mevud). After the death of Moses, the Israelites who seized the lands of Canaan, under the leadership of religious leaders called judges, settled down and established a kingdom of their own tribe in the land of Canaan. David, the King of Israel, conquered Jerusalem and reached the kingdom's widest borders. During the reign of his son, King Solomon, a large shrine was built in Jerusalem. After the death of King Solomon, in 931 BC, the Kingdom was divided into Israel in the north and Judah in the south. After this period, jews were subjected to the exiles of assyrians and Babylonians and then the Roman Empire under the influence of the dominant powers in their lands, and kept their religious teachings in diaspora life and survived. they have worked. In the period beginning with the new religious communiqué of Jesus Christ in the 1st century, the Roman empire, which had pagan religious beliefs, initially saw this as a religious reform movement within Judaism. However, after the death of Jesus, Christianity was introduced as a new religion by St. Paul and spread rapidly on Roman lands with mission activities. During this period, the Roman empire, while trying to preserve the effectiveness of the imperial religion, saw Christianity as a threat to itself, rejecting the emperor's human authority and ignoring the pagan gods and the cult of empire. In addition, the Roman emperors, who claimed absolute supremacy, increased the intervention of Jews in their religious lives. Jewish revolts that emerged for this reason resulted in the demolition of the Solomon Temple in 70 AD and the expulsion of Jews from Jerusalem. After this period, jews who spread to the territory of the Roman Empire and lived as diaspora shaded hard times after Christianity was accepted as the official religion of the empire. When Christianity became a dominant force in the religious structure of society, Jews became epidemics, wars, etc. during this period.They were seen as the source of all evil. The status of Jews remained unchanged in the central kingdoms established on European lands after the fall of the Roman Empire. With the Crusades, violence against jews reached its peak, followed by expulsions. The Ottoman empire was a refuge for Jews expelled from England in 1290, France in 1306, 1322 and 1394, and Spain in 1492.



Keywords
Jews,Migration,Christianity,Exile.



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