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Abstract


POLITICAL EFFECT OF ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS STRUCTURE IN SYRIA

Syria, which has an important place in the Middle East geography, shows great diversity due to its ethnic and religious structure. This diversity brought about many contradictions and polarizations. The polarization with the Syrian civil war that began in 2011 has manifested itself predominantly on the mutual sides. Denominational divisions beyond religious identity have fueled this war. The polarizations in the country, which was previously ruled by the French mandate, continued to exist with the policy of divide-rule. Today, the countries of the war, taking advantage of this ethnic and religious diversity, support the war in their own interests. When Hafız Assad came to power with the 1970 coup, the Nusayris, a minority in the country, seized power. The Sunnis, which make up the majority, could not show much presence in the administration and power. The events in the country continued to develop by feeding from these conflicts and turned into civil war. Many people lost their lives as a result of the events and a significant part of them are leaving their homes and trying to live as refugees in other countries. In this study, after briefly mentioning the history of Syria, the ethnic and religious structure of the country is discussed. The impact of the ethnic and religious structure on politics and the civil war process in Syria, especially the Syrian crisis that started with the Arab spring, are examined in another chapter. During the study process, literature was searched and as much as possible, academic studies and / or experts were tried to be utilized.



Keywords
Middle East, Syria, Ethnic - Religious Structure, Nusayri, Sunni, Shia, Civil War.



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